Assessing the effects of hook, bait and leader type as potential mitigation measures to reduce bycatch and mortality rates of shortfin mako: a meta-analysis with comparisons for target, bycatch and vulnerable fauna interactions
A meta-analysis of 24 publications was conducted to assess effects of hook, bait and leader type on retention rates of target, bycatch and vulnerable species of the pelagic longline fishery. Retention rate and at-haulback mortality rate analyses considered hook type, bait type, the combination of both variables and leader type. Turtles and swordfish had a lower retention rate with circle hooks. In contrast, retention rates of 3 sharks and 2 tuna species were greater with circle hooks. Bait type alone did not seem to significantly influence the retention rates of most of the species examined. Results were mixed when considering the combined effects of hook and bait type. Wire leader led to a decrease in retention rates of bony fishes and a mix for elasmobranchs. For at-haulback mortality, hook type was the most influential, while bait type only influenced blue shark at-haulback mortality. Leader type did not have a significant effect. The results presented here should be considered preliminary. Future work will consider information on at-haulback mortality rates for bony fishes and sea turtle and expanded information on fishery characteristics.