Sharks and Rays

Most shark and ray bycatch is due to hooking on longlines, but significant bycatch is attributed to capture in purse seine nets (mostly when fishing on FADs) and also to entanglement in netting on FADs. Research into mitigation of shark bycatch is looking at a range of options. Among these are: the effect of circle hooks on shark catch rates; ‘Eco' or 'Bio' FADs to reduce entanglement and marine debris; electrical and magnetic hook deterrents; selectivity of artificial bait; and ways to lure or release sharks from seine nets. Safe handling and release procedures have been developed which significantly reduce post-release mortality of sharks.

Several recent studies have looked at the factors affecting post-release mortality of sharks, e.g., stationary-respiring shark species have been shown to experience lower post-release mortality rates than obligate ram-ventilators on longlines [1]. Such information helps to understand the vulnerability of different shark species and thus feeds into improved management strategies for shark bycatch.

For detailed biological and distributional data about shark species, refer to FishBase. FAO has published a series of regional catalogues describing shark/ batoid/chimeras, such as this one for the North Atlantic. Look for others in the series here. NOAA's 'Find a Species - Highly Migratory Species' has information on protection status, biology and population status, distribution, threats, conservation measures and research. Handy species ID guides can be found here.

References

  1. Dapp DR, Huveneers C, Walker TI, et al (2016) Moving from Measuring to Predicting Bycatch Mortality: Predicting the Capture Condition of a Longline-Caught Pelagic Shark. Front Mar Sci 2:126. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00126
Sharks

Species

3-Alpha Code Name Scientific Name
ALS SILVERTIP SHARK Carcharhinus albimarginatus
ALV THRESHER Alopias vulpinus
AML GREY REEF SHARK Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos
BAI RAYS, SKATES AND MANTAS Batoidimorpha (Hypotrmata)
BLR BLACKTIP REEF SHARK Carcharhinus melanopterus
BRO BRONZE WHALER SHARK Carcharhinus brachyurus
BSH BLUE SHARK Prionace glauca
BSK BASKING SHARK Cetorhinus maximus
BTH BIGEYE THRESHER Alopias superciliosus
CCA BIGNOSE SHARK Carcharhinus altimus
CCB SPINNER SHARK Carcharhinus brevipinna
CCD WHITECHEEK SHARK Carcharhinus dussumieri
CCE BULL SHARK Carcharhinus leucas
CCF PIGEYE SHARK Carcharhinus amboinensis
CCG GALAPAGOS SHARK Carcharhinus galapagensis
CCL BLACKTIP SHARK Carcharhinus limbatus
CCM HARDNOSE SHARK Carcharhinus macloti
CCP SANDBAR SHARK Carcharhinus plumbeus
CCQ SPOT-TAIL SHARK Carcharhinus sorrah
CCT GREY NURSE SHARK Carcharias taurus
CCU AUSTRALIAN BLACKTIP SHARK Carcharhinus tilstoni
CCY GRACEFUL SHARK Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides
CCZ CREEK WHALER Carcharhinus fitzroyensis
CEM SMALLFIN GULPER SHARK Centrophorus moluccensis
CEU DUMB GULPER SHARK Centrophorus harrissoni
CNX WHITENOSE SHARK Nasolamia velox
CPS CARPET SHARK Cephaloscyllium isabellum
CPU LITTLE GULPER SHARK Centrophorus uyato
CTU GUMMY SHARK Mustelus antarcticus
CVX GROUND SHARKS Carcharhiniformes
CYU PLUNKETS SHARK Scymnodon plunketi
DCA SHOVELNOSE DOGFISH Deania calcea
DGS SPINY DOGFISH Squalus acanthias
DGX DOG FISHES Squalidae
DOP Spurdog Squalus megalops
DUS DUSKY SHARK Carcharhinus obscurus
FAL SILKY SHARK Carcharhinus falciformis
GAG SCHOOL SHARK Galeorhinus galeus
HDQ BULLHEAD SHARKS Heterodontiformes
HEE SNAGGLETOOTH SHARK Hemipristis elongatus
HXT SHARPSNOUTED SEVENGILL SHARK Heptranchias perlo
ISB COOKIE CUTTER SHARK Isistius brasiliensis
LES LEOPARD SHARK Triakis semifasciata
LMA LONG FINNED MAKO Isurus paucus
LMD SALMON SHARK Lamna ditropis
LMP MEGAMOUTH SHARK Megachasma pelagios
MAK MAKO SHARKS Isurus spp.
MAN MANTA RAYS (UNIDENTIFIED) Mobulidae
MTL SPOTTED ESTUARY SMOOTH-HOUND Mustelus lenticulatus
NGA SICKLEFIN LEMON SHARK Negaprion acutidens
NTC BROADSNOUTED SEVENGILL SHARK Notorynchus cepedianus
OCS OCEANIC WHITETIP SHARK Carcharhinus longimanus
ODH BIGEYE SAND SHARK Odontaspis noronhai
ORZ TAWNY NURSE SHARK Nebrius ferrugineus
OSF ZEBRA SHARK Stegostoma fasciatum
PLS PELAGIC STING-RAY Dasyatis violacea
POR PORBEAGLE SHARK Lamna nasus
PPC LONGNOSE SAWSHARK Pristiophorus cirratus
PSK CROCODILE SHARK Pseudocarcharias kamoharai
PTH PELAGIC THRESHER Alopias pelagicus
REM REMORA SPECIES Remora spp.
REO SHARK SUCKER Remora remora
RHA MILK SHARK Rhizoprionodon acutus
RHN WHALE SHARK Rhincodon typus
RHY AUSTRALIAN SHARPNOSE SHARK Rhizoprionodon taylori
RPC DWARF SAWFISH Pristis clavata
RPZ LONGCOMB SAWFISH Pristis zijsron
RSK REQUIEM SHARKS NEI Carcharhinidae
RUZ GREENBACK STINGAREE Urolophus viridis
SBL COW SHARK Hexanchus griseus
SCK SEAL SHARK / BLACK SHARK Dalatias licha
SHK SHARKS (UNIDENTIFIED) Elasmobranchii
SKH SHARKS NEI Selachimorpha (Pleurotremata)
SKX SHARKS, RAYS, SKATES, ETC. NEI Elasmobranchii
SMA SHORT FINNED MAKO Isurus oxyrhinchus
SON PACIFIC SLEEPER SHARK Somniosus pacificus
SPK GREAT HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna mokarran
SPL SCALLOPED HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna lewini
SPN HAMMERHEAD SHARKS Sphyrna spp.
SPZ SMOOTH HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna zygaena
SSQ VELVET DOGFISH Scymnodon squamulosus
THR THRESHER SHARKS NEI Alopias spp.
TIG TIGER SHARK Galeocerdo cuvier
TRB WHITETIP REEF SHARK Triaenodon obesus
WSH GREAT WHITE SHARK Carcharodon carcharias
WST WHIP STINGRAY Dasyatis akajei