Management Categories

    Management information in the BMIS provides context and rationale for the development of bycatch conservation and management measures. We have devised categories for references, to make searching management information easier. The list will evolve over time. Management references can be filtered according to category name, year, species groups, gear type (PS or LL), and also by keyword searches such as RFMO acronyms or author names.

    Read More

    Bycatch Threats

    References included in this category discuss broadscale threats to bycatch species from human activities, including fisheries, and may also discuss mitigation of identified threats. These studies often analyse interactions between fisheries and bycatch, and identify areas (‘hotspots’) to target for threat mitigation. Some papers discuss threats in terms of percentages of populations affected, such as how many seabirds are killed in longline fisheries each year.


    New - limited references as yet. This category is predominantly concerned with issues surrounding compliance with RFMO conservation and management measures, such as observer coverage, at-port inspection, crew training and on-board bycatch data collection and quality.

    Data Harmonisation

    At present, bycatch data collected across tuna RFMOs is not collected in a consistent format, i.e., there is variation in the required data fields for fishing trips/sets. However, harmonisation of bycatch data is progressing through initiatives arising from the Joint tRFMO Expert Technical Working Group on Bycatch. Data harmonisation will allow for more comprehensive reporting on the status of bycatch species, assist with the identification of factors that cause or increase bycatch, and evaluate the performance of mitigation methods [1].


    E-monitoring technologies are being trialled onboard vessels in some fisheries for their potential benefits in improving management, reporting, and cost efficiencies [e.g. 1]. They have the potential to ensure data collections are timely, accurate, adaptable to emerging needs, and capable of providing data at a scale that will support management and scientific needs [2]. Furthermore, E-monitoring has the potential to expand the data collected by freeing at-sea observers to concentrate on data fields or tasks that cannot be collected via E-Monitoring.


    This category includes reports, journal publications and other literature which incorporate static maps of bycatch distributions (species ranges, overlaps with fisheries, nursery and other special habitat areas, foraging hotspots, etc.) and schematics of bycatch interaction rates. Also referenced in the BMIS are online bycatch databases that generate maps such as “The State of the World’s Sea Turtles” (SWOT) global sea turtle data and Birdlife International’s Seabird Tracking database.

    Post-Release Mortality

    Sustainable fisheries management requires that bycatch mortality due to fishing activities be accurately estimated and considered in population status assessments and management measures [1]. Quantifying total bycatch mortality requires understanding and accounting for post-release mortality (PRM). Methods to ameliorate PRM are also essential.

    Review and Planning

    Includes review and planning meetings or workshops considering species groups or individual species and where a broad range of information is considered [e.g. fisheries, biological and ecological data (gaps and quality), mitigation techniques, role of observers, regulations, population level assessment, research prioritisation. Research plans (and progress on meeting their objectives) are also included in this category.

    Tagging Studies

    Bycatch management is becoming increasingly dynamic. Tagging studies, using technologies such as satellite telemetry, collect information on both bycatch and target species to identify and characterize their habitat**. These habitat data can be used with fisheries data, such as effort and bycatch interaction rates, to identify habitat or interaction 'hotspots' and inform management.