Sharks and Rays

Incidental shark and ray capture occurs in longline, purse seine and gillnet tuna fisheries. The most effective mitigation measures for longline fisheries include deep-setting, reduced soak time, avoiding wire leaders and hook and bait changes [2], though in applying these, cross-taxa effects need careful consideration. Silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are the most common shark bycatch species in purse seine fisheries, captured mostly when vessels fish on FADs but also through entanglement in FAD netting. Limiting FAD use and modifying FAD designs and practices are the most promising mitigation methods [2]. As with cetaceans, entanglement is a significant problem in medium-scale, semi-industrial and artisanal tuna drift gillnet fisheries. There has been some success with sub-surface gillnets [3] but further validation of this technique is required. For all gear types, safe handling and release procedures have been developed which significantly reduce post-release mortality of sharks.

Recent studies have looked at physiological factors affecting post-release mortality of sharks, e.g., stationary-respiring shark species have been shown to experience lower post-release mortality rates than obligate ram-ventilators on longlines [1]. Such information helps to understand the vulnerability of different shark species and thus feeds into improved management strategies for shark bycatch.

For detailed biological and distributional data about shark species, refer to FishBase or Shark-References. FAO has published a series of regional catalogues describing shark/ batoid/chimeras, such as this one for the North Atlantic. Look for others in the series here. NOAA's 'Find a Species - Highly Migratory Species' has information on protection status, biology and population status, distribution, threats, conservation measures and research. Handy species ID guides can be found here.

STAGIS, a database of shark tagging FIELD STUDIES conducted in the Pacific Ocean, can be accessed here.

References

  1. Dapp DR, Huveneers C, Walker TI, et al (2016) Moving from Measuring to Predicting Bycatch Mortality: Predicting the Capture Condition of a Longline-Caught Pelagic Shark. Front Mar Sci 2:126. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2015.00126
  2. Swimmer Y, Zollett E, Gutierrez A (2020) Bycatch mitigation of protected and threatened species in tuna purse seine and longline fisheries. Endang Species Res 43:517–542. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01069
  3. Moazzam M (2019) Species composition of elasmobranchs in the surface and subsurface gillnet operation in the Northern Arabian Sea. In: IOTC - 15th Working Party on Ecosystems and Bycatch. IOTC-2019-WPEB15-13, La Saline Les Bains, Reunion Island

     

Sharks

Species

3-Alpha Code Name Scientific Name
ALS SILVERTIP SHARK Carcharhinus albimarginatus
ALV THRESHER SHARK (VULPINUS) Alopias vulpinus
AML GREY REEF SHARK Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos
ASK ANGELSHARKS, SAND DEVILS NEI Squatinidae
BLR BLACKTIP REEF SHARK Carcharhinus melanopterus
BRO BRONZE WHALER SHARK Carcharhinus brachyurus
BSH BLUE SHARK Prionace glauca
BSK BASKING SHARK Cetorhinus maximus
BTH BIGEYE THRESHER SHARK Alopias superciliosus
CCA BIGNOSE SHARK Carcharhinus altimus
CCB SPINNER SHARK Carcharhinus brevipinna
CCD WHITECHEEK SHARK Carcharhinus dussumieri
CCE BULL SHARK Carcharhinus leucas
CCF PIGEYE SHARK Carcharhinus amboinensis
CCG GALAPAGOS SHARK Carcharhinus galapagensis
CCL BLACKTIP SHARK Carcharhinus limbatus
CCM HARDNOSE SHARK Carcharhinus macloti
CCP SANDBAR SHARK Carcharhinus plumbeus
CCQ SPOTTAIL SHARK Carcharhinus sorrah
CCT GREY NURSE SHARK Carcharias taurus
CCU AUSTRALIAN BLACKTIP SHARK Carcharhinus tilstoni
CCY GRACEFUL SHARK Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides
CCZ CREEK WHALER Carcharhinus fitzroyensis
CEM SMALLFIN GULPER SHARK Centrophorus moluccensis
CEU DUMB GULPER SHARK Centrophorus harrissoni
CHB GHOST SHARK Callorhinchus milii
CNX WHITENOSE SHARK Nasolamia velox
CPS DRAUGHTSBOARD SHARK Cephaloscyllium isabellum
CPU LITTLE GULPER SHARK Centrophorus uyato
CTU GUMMY SHARK Mustelus antarcticus
CVX GROUND SHARKS Carcharhiniformes
CYU PLUNKET SHARK Scymnodon plunketi
DCA BIRDBEAK DOGFISH Deania calcea
DGS PICKED DOGFISH Squalus acanthias
DGX DOGFISH SHARKS NEI Squalidae
DGZ DOGFISHES NEI Squalus spp
DOP SHORTNOSE SPURDOG Squalus megalops
DUS DUSKY SHARK Carcharhinus obscurus
DWS SHARKS (UNIDENTIFIED) Elasmobranchii
ETF BLACKBELLY LANTERNSHARK Etmopterus lucifer
EUB WINGHEAD SHARK Eusphyra blochii
F42 CARPET SHARK Cephaloscyllium isabella
F54 PLUNKETS SHARK Scymnodon plunketi
F67 WINGHEAD SHARK Sphyrna blochi
FAL SILKY SHARK Carcharhinus falciformis
GAG SCHOOL SHARK Galeorhinus galeus
HAH BRISTLY CATSHARK Halaelurus hispidus
HDQ BULLHEAD SHARKS Heterodontiformes
HEE SNAGGLETOOTH SHARK Hemipristis elongatus
HEG CRESTED BULLHEAD SHARK Heterodontus galeatus
HXT SHARPNOSE SEVENGILL SHARK Heptranchias perlo
ISB COOKIE CUTTER SHARK Isistius brasiliensis
LES LEOPARD SHARK Triakis semifasciata
LMA LONGFIN MAKO Isurus paucus
LMD SALMON SHARK Lamna ditropis
LMP MEGAMOUTH SHARK Megachasma pelagios
MAK MAKO SHARKS Isurus spp.
MSK MACKEREL SHARKS,PORBEAGLES NEI Lamnidae
MTL SPOTTED ESTUARY SMOOTH-HOUND Mustelus lenticulatus
NGA SICKLEFIN LEMON SHARK Negaprion acutidens
NTC BROADNOSE SEVENGILL SHARK Notorynchus cepedianus
OCS OCEANIC WHITETIP SHARK Carcharhinus longimanus
ODH BIGEYE SAND TIGER SHARK Odontaspis noronhai
ORZ TAWNY NURSE SHARK Nebrius ferrugineus
OSF ZEBRA SHARK Stegostoma fasciatum
POR PORBEAGLE SHARK Lamna nasus
PPC LONGNOSE SAWSHARK Pristiophorus cirratus
PSK CROCODILE SHARK Pseudocarcharias kamoharai
PTH PELAGIC THRESHER SHARK Alopias pelagicus
REO SHARK SUCKER Remora remora
RHA MILK SHARK Rhizoprionodon acutus
RHN WHALE SHARK Rhincodon typus
RHY AUSTRALIAN SHARPNOSE SHARK Rhizoprionodon taylori
RME LONGHORNED MOBULA Mobula eregoodootenkee
RMO SMOOTHTAIL MOBULA Mobula thurstoni
RPC DWARF SAWFISH Pristis clavata
RPZ LONGCOMB SAWFISH Pristis zijsron
RSK REQUIEM SHARKS NEI Carcharhinidae
RUT CROSSBACK STINGAREE Urolophus cruciatus
RUZ GREENBACK STINGAREE Urolophus viridis
SBL BLUNTNOSE SIXGILL SHARK Hexanchus griseus
SCK KITEFIN SHARK Dalatias licha
SF1 SHARK FINS
SHK SHARKS (UNIDENTIFIED) Elasmobranchii
SKH VARIOUS SHARKS NEI Selachimorpha (Pleurotremata)
SKX SHARKS, RAYS, SKATES, ETC. NEI Elasmobranchii
SMA SHORTFIN MAKO Isurus oxyrhinchus
SON PACIFIC SLEEPER SHARK Somniosus pacificus
SPK GREAT HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna mokarran
SPL SCALLOPED HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna lewini
SPN HAMMERHEAD SHARKS NEI Sphyrna spp.
SPQ SMALLEYE HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna tudes
SPZ SMOOTH HAMMERHEAD Sphyrna zygaena
SSQ VELVET DOGFISH Scymnodon squamulosus
SUN OCELLATED ANGELSHARK Squatina tergocellatoides
THR THRESHER SHARKS NEI Alopias spp.
TIG TIGER SHARK Galeocerdo cuvier
TRB WHITETIP REEF SHARK Triaenodon obesus
TSK FLAPNOSE HOUNDSHARK Scylliogaleus quecketti
WSH GREAT WHITE SHARK Carcharodon carcharias