Management information in the BMIS provides context and rationale for the development of bycatch conservation and management measures (see Regulations). We have devised categories for references, to make searching management information easier. The list will evolve over time.
Literature in this category examines threats to bycatch species from human activities, including fisheries, and looks for patterns in these interactions.
Studies considering bycatch threats often analyse interactions between fisheries and bycatch species, and identify aspects to target for threat mitigation. These aspects may include spatial areas in which bycatch threats are greatest (‘hotspots’) [e.g. 2]. Some studies prioritise actions to reduce identified threats [e.g. 3]. Papers may discuss threats in terms of percentages of populations affected, such as how many seabirds are killed in longline fisheries each year [e.g. 4]. Oliver et al. (2015) address broad-scale patterns of elasmobranch bycatch in commercial longline, trawl, purse- seine and gillnet fisheries and Bugoni et al. (2008) explore seabird bycatch rates in the south-western Atlantic Ocean...
New - limited references as yet. This category is predominantly concerned with issues surrounding compliance with RFMO conservation and management measures, such as observer coverage, at-port inspection, crew training and on-board bycatch data collection and quality.
At present, bycatch data collected across tuna RFMOs is not collected in a consistent format, i.e., there is variation in the required data fields for fishing trips/sets. However, harmonisation of bycatch data is progressing through initiatives arising from the Joint tRFMO Expert Technical Working Group on Bycatch. Data harmonisation will allow for more comprehensive reporting on the status of bycatch species, assist with the identification of factors that cause or increase bycatch, and evaluate the performance of mitigation methods .
E-monitoring technologies are being trialled onboard vessels in some fisheries for their potential benefits in improving management, reporting, and cost efficiencies [e.g. 1]. They have the potential to ensure data collections are timely, accurate, adaptable to emerging needs, and capable of providing data at a scale that will support management and scientific needs . Furthermore, E-monitoring has the potential to expand the data collected by freeing at-sea observers to concentrate on data fields or tasks that cannot be collected via E-Monitoring.
Literature which contributes to the evaluation of the impacts of management measures and utilisation of mitigation techniques on the economics of fishing. This may be at the vessel, fishery, regional, or global scale.
Literature collated under this category include studies that review fisheries management performance in light of international and national management schemes. For example, references which assess whether bycatch management has been efficient or effective , propose new standards, or identify priority gaps [2,3].
Literature in this section examines broad-scale patterns in the implementation of bycatch mitigation technologies and the effectiveness of these in reducing quantities of bycatch.
The policy and legal framework set by international and national fisheries management instruments informs the bycatch conservation and management policies of RFMOs. References in this category look at the range of instruments and how they impact on management planning. Many also discuss fisheries management performance.
References in this category look at communication between marine scientists, policy developers and decision-makers, and how science can be better integrated into the decision-making process for the management of bycatch [e.g. 1].
Sustainable fisheries management requires that bycatch mortality due to fishing activities be accurately estimated and considered in population status assessments and management measures . Quantifying total bycatch mortality requires understanding and accounting for post-release mortality (PRM). Methods to ameliorate PRM are also essential.
This category includes review and planning meetings or workshops considering species groups or individual species and where a broad range of information is considered. For example, fisheries, biological and ecological data (gaps and quality), mitigation techniques, role of observers, regulations, population level assessment and research prioritisation. Research plans (and progress on meeting their objectives) are also included in this category.
Some tuna RFMOs have adopted regulations that aim to halt the practice of shark finning, in which sharks are landed onboard and their high value fins removed. Shark finning restrictions include regulatory requirements such as the use of fin-to-carcass-weight ratios, 'full retention', i.e., prohibition of removal of shark fins at sea, or similarly, that all sharks be landed with their fins naturally attached (fully or partially). Regulations may prohibit fishing vessels from retaining on board, transshipping, landing, or trading any fins harvested in contravention of a regulation.
Good species identification skills among crew and observers are important for reasons of science (data quality) and compliance (the enforcement of conservation measures). They also enable the use of appropriate safe handling and release procedures.
Bycatch management is becoming increasingly dynamic. Tagging studies, using technologies such as satellite telemetry, collect information on both bycatch and target species to identify and characterize their habitat**. These habitat data can be used with fisheries data, such as effort and bycatch interaction rates, to identify habitat or interaction 'hotspots' and inform management.