Underwater setting techniques are means of deploying baited hooks below the surface of the sea, out of the sight and reach of foraging seabirds. None are currently recommended as a mitigation method .
Examples of underwater setting techniques include:
- the underwater bait setter, also known as a bait setting capsule or underwater bait launcher; and
- underwater setting tubes or chutes.
While versions of the latter have been trialled in pelagic longline fisheries, they are currently used only in demersal longline fisheries (see Birdlife International Factsheet 6 Demersal Longline: Underwater setting chute) and are not discussed here. Likewise, underwater setting funnels or lining tubes apply to demersal longline fisheries.
The underwater bait setter for pelagic longline fisheries deploys a baited hook underwater through a stainless steel capsule. Development has progressed through several stages and is outlined in Robertson et al (2015). To be updated.
ACAP. 2019. ACAP Review and Best Practice Advice for Reducing the Impact of Pelagic Longline Fisheries on Seabirds. In: ACAP - Eleventh Meeting of the Advisory Committee. Florianópolis, Brazil
- Birdlife International. 2009. Fact sheet 6 (Version 1) Demersal Longline: Underwater setting chute.
- Brothers, N., Cooper, J., Lokkeborg, S., 1999. The incidental catch of seabirds by longline fisheries: worldwide review and technical guidelines for mitigation. FAO Fisheries Circular 937.
- Bull, L. 2006. A review of methodologies aimed at avoiding and/or mitigating incidental catch of seabirds in longline fisheries. WCPFC-SC2-EB-WP-5.
Robertson G., Ashworth P., Ashworth P., et al. 2015. The Development and Operational Testing of an Underwater Bait Setting System to Prevent the Mortality of Albatrosses and Petrels in Pelagic Longline Fisheries. OJMS 05:1–12. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojms.2015.51001
- Robertson, G. And Hay, I. 2012. Progress report on the development and testing of the underwater bait setter for pelagic longline fisheries. WCPFC-SC8-EB-IP-02.