Hooking mortality of scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and great hammerhead Sphyrna mokarran sharks caught on bottom longlines

Citation
Gulak SJB, Santiago A de R, Carlson JK (2015) Hooking mortality of scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and great hammerhead Sphyrna mokarran sharks caught on bottom longlines. African Journal of Marine Science 37:267–273. doi: 10.2989/1814232X.2015.1026842
Abstract

The scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and the great hammerhead S. mokarran are typically caught as bycatch in a variety of fisheries and are listed as globally Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Due to very high at-vessel mortality for these species, research is needed on fishing methods to reduce mortality for longline-captured sharks. A series of fishing experiments were conducted employing hook timers and temperature–depth recorders on contracted commercial vessels fishing with bottom-longline gear to assess factors related to mortality. A total of 273 sets were deployed with 54 485 hook timers. Scalloped and great hammerheads had at-vessel mortality rates of 62.9% and 56.0%, respectively. Median hooking times for scalloped and great hammerheads were 3.5 h and 3.4 h, respectively, and 50% mortality was predicted at 3.5 h and 3.8 h. When these data are considered for potential management strategies to reduce the mortality of hammerhead sharks, a limitation on gear soak time would probably improve hammerhead shark survivorship. However, it may prove to be difficult for a fishery to remain economically viable if the soak time is limited to less than the median hooking time for the target species. Additional management options, such as time/area closures, may need to be explored to reduce bycatch mortality of scalloped and great hammerheads.