The risk of 'flybacks' (swivel weights flying back towards the vessel after bite-offs or line breaks) is greater with monofilament leaders. See Sliding leads - these slide down the branch line during bite-offs greatly reduce the incidence of fly-backs.
- Afonso, A.S., Santiago, R., Hazin, H. and Hazin, F.H.V. 2012. Shark bycatch and mortality and hook bite-offs in pelagic longlines: Interactions between hook types and leader materials. Fisheries Research 131-133: 9-14. doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2012.07.001.
- Alessandro, L. and Antonello, S. 2010. An overview of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) bycatch and technical mitigation measures in the Mediterranean Sea. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 20(2): 141-161. DOI 10.1007/s11160-009-9126-1
- Boggs, C. H., and Swimmer, Y. 2007. Developments (2006-2007) in scientific research on the use of modified fishing gear to reduce longline bycatch of sea turtles. WCPFC-SC3-EB-WP-7.
- Clarke, S. 2011. A status snapshot of key shark species in the western and central pacific and potential management options. WCPFC SC7 EB-WP-04.
- Clarke, S., Sato, M., Small, C., Sullivan, B., Inoue, Y. and Ochi, D. 2014. Bycatch in longline fisheries for tuna and tuna-like species: a global review of status and mitigation measures. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 588. Rome, FAO. 199 pp. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4017e.pdf
- Cosandey-Godin, A. and Morgan, A. 2011. Fisheries Bycatch of Sharks: Options for Mitigation. Ocean Science Series, The Pew Environment Group.
- Gilman, E., Clarke, S., Brothers, N., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mandelman, J., Mangel, J., Petersen, S., Piovano, S., Thomson, N., Dalzell, P., Donoso, M., Goren, M. and Werner, T. 2007. Shark depredation and unwanted bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries: Industry practices and attitudes, and shark avoidance strategies. Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council, Honolulu, USA.
- Gilman, E., Clarke, S., Brothers, N., Alfaro-Shigueto, J., Mandelman, J., Mangel, J., Petersen, S., Piovano, S., Thomson, N., Dalzell, P., Donoso, M., Goren, M. and Werner, T. 2008. Shark interactions in pelagic longline fisheries. Marine Policy 32(1): 1-18.
- Hoey, J. J. 2001. Comments on SEC Initial Draft Criteria, In Stock assessments of Loggerhead and Leatherback Sea turtles and an Assessment of the Impact of the Pelagic Longline Fishery on the Loggerhead and Leatherback Sea turtles of the Western North Atlantic. National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Centre. NOAA Technical Memo. NMFS-SEFSC-455.
- Mug, M., Hall, M. and Vogel, N. 2008. Bycatch Initiative: Eastern Pacific Programme - A vehicle towards sustainable fisheries. Progress report of fishing experiments with modified gear (2004-2007). WWF and IATTC.
- Robins, C. M., Bradshaw, E. J. and Kreutz, D. C. 2007. Marine Turtle Mitigation in Australia's Pelagic Longline Fisheries. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation Final Report 2003/013, Canberra, Australia.
- Stone, H. H. and Dixon L. K. 2001. A Comparison of Catches of Swordfish, Xiphias gladius, and Other Pelagic Species from Canadian Longline Gear Configured with Alternating Monofilament and Multifilament Nylon Gangions. Fisheries Bulletin 99: 210-216.
- Ward, P., Lawrence, E., Darbyshire, R. and Hindmarsh, S. 2008. Large-scale experiment shows that nylon leaders reduce shark bycatch and benefit pelagic longline fishers. In IOTC-2011-WPDCS08-INFO7.
Francis MP, Lyon WS, Clarke SC, et al. 2023. Post-release survival of shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks released from pelagic tuna longlines in the Pacific Ocean. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 33:366–378. https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.3920