Mitigation Techniques

    Safe handling & release

    Safe handling and release refers to using best practice methods for dealing with bycatch species, to maximise their chances of survival after interacting with fishing gear. It can also include vessel manoeuvring to avoid taking bycatch species, for example, avoiding setting purse seines on whale sharks. Illustrated Guides and more general literature have been collected in the BMIS.

    Species Groups
    Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sharks and Rays, Sea Turtles
    Fishing Gear
    Longline, Purse Seine

    FAD design & management

    It has long been known that natural floating objects, such as logs, palm leaves or dead animals, attract fish. Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs), made of either natural or man-made materials, are deployed to exploit this phenomenon and help catch pelagic fish. In fisheries management literature, the term 'FAD' often encompasses both man-made, deployed FADs and naturally occurring flotsam [27].
     
    Species Groups
    Sharks and Rays, Sea Turtles
    Fishing Gear
    Purse Seine

    Spatial & temporal measures

    Spatial and temporal measures aim to avoid or minimise bycatch by either temporarily or permanently moving fishing out of an area (e.g., time and area closures, marine protected areas), or requiring that particular mitigation techniques be adopted in an area. They are predominantly mandatory (i.e., fisheries regulations) but can be voluntary and the areas that they apply to may be dynamic, e.g., around an ocean front, or static, e.g., around a seamount or below a specified latitude.

    Species Groups
    Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sharks and Rays, Sea Turtles
    Fishing Gear
    Longline, Purse Seine, Gillnet

    ALDFG - management of abandoned, lost, discarded fishing gear

    Management of abandoned, lost, discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) refers to the management of fishing gear - onboard and deployed, e.g., FADs - and retrieval of lost gear as a means of reducing fisheries bycatch. In recent years, tuna RFMOs, to varying degrees, have adopted binding measures and data collection protocols to address the issue.

    Species Groups
    Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sharks and Rays, Sea Turtles
    Fishing Gear
    Longline, Purse Seine, Gillnet

    Auditory deterrents and attractors

    Using sound to discourage or distract bycatch species from interacting with fishing gear. Auditory deterrents are not generally considered useful, except in limited circumstances, in reducing bycatch of seabirds, turtles and sharks. In the main, this is because the feasibility and long-term effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent is affected by habituation.

    Species Groups
    Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sharks and Rays, Sea Turtles
    Fishing Gear
    Longline, Purse Seine, Gillnet

    Seabird Saver

    The Seabird Saver is a recently developed technology combining a laser and an optional acoustic deterrent. It has been designed for longline, purse seine and trawl fisheries, among others, with the aim of scaring many different seabird species from interacting with bait, catch or discards. ACAP regards lasers as unproven & not recommended, with concerns about safety for both seabirds & humans.

    Species Groups
    Seabirds
    Fishing Gear
    Longline, Purse Seine

    Gear configuration - other

    'Gear configuration - other' is a catch-all for changes in the deployment of fishing gear (aimed at reducing bycatch) that are not covered by other mitigation methods listed in this database. They are generally not well studied, for example, decreasing the number of hooks between floats to decrease shark catch rates.

    Species Groups
    Seabirds, Marine Mammals, Sharks and Rays, Sea Turtles
    Fishing Gear
    Longline, Purse Seine